A Virtual Reality Simulation of Corneal Cutting Process during Cataract Surgery Operation

Document Type : Original Article


1 Mechanical engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

2 K.N. Toosi University of Technology


A haptic simulation of the corneal incision is implemented based on a validated mathematical model of the corneal cutting process. The experimental setup measures force in three phases of pre-cutting, cutting, and relaxation. The mechanical behavior of the corneal incision is modeled mathematically from the experiments. The haptic model is characterized by the behavior of the ovine corneal tissue in sequential phases. In the pre-cutting phase, the force increases until the instrument tip penetrates into the cornea. Then, a reduction in the force indicates the onset of the cutting phase after which the force remains constant. At the relaxation phase, the force returns to zero. The numerical results of the haptic simulation show that the maximum force error predicted by the model is 0.016 N for the keratome velocity of 2 mm/s and the root mean square of the error is 0.004 N.