Design and Analysis of a Novel Tendon-less Backbone Robot

Document Type: Original Article


School of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran


A new type of backbone robot is presented in this paper. The core idea is to use a cross shape mechanism with the principle of functioning of the scissors linkages, known as a pantograph. Although this continuum arm acts quite similar to tendon-driven robot, this manipulator does not include any tendon in its structure. This design does not suffer from the weaknesses of the continuum design such as low payload and coarse positioning accuracy. Kinematic model is developed and the equation of motion for this arm is derived by Lagrange's method. The work envelope and the occupied space investigation are supposed to be established on the comparison between tendon-based model as the common backbone models and our proposed idea. The results show the effectiveness of the backbone design. 


[1] M. E. Rosheim, “Robot evolution: the development of anthrobotics”, John Wiley & Sons, (1994).

[2] M. H. Korayem, M. Bamdad and M. Saadat, “Workspace analysis of cable-suspended robots with elastic cable”, IEEE International Conference, (2007), pp. 1942-1947.

[3] J. J. Lee and Y. H. Lee, “Dynamic analysis of tendon driven robotic mechanisms”, Journal of Robotic Systems, Vol. 20(5), (2003), pp. 229-238.

[4] S. Hirose, and S. Ma, “Coupled tendon-driven multijoint manipulator”, Robotics and Automation Proceedings, IEEE International Conference, (1991).

[5] M.  Bamdad, and A. Mardany, “Motion analysis of continuum robots structures with cable actuation”, Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 14(14), (2015).

[6] M. Bamdad and A. Mardany, “Mechatronics modeling of a branching tendon-driven robot”, Robotics and Mechatronics (ICRoM), Second RSI/ISM International Conference, (2014), pp. 522-527

[7] M. Bamdad and A. Mardany, “Design and analysis of a novel cable-driven backbone for continuum robots”, Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 15(3) (2015).

[8] W. McMahan, J. Bryan, I. Walker, V. Chitrakaran, A. Seshadri, and Darren Dawson, “Robotic manipulators inspired by cephalopod limbs”, Proceedings of the Canadian Engineering Education Association, (2011).

[9] I. Gravagne, and I. D. Walker, “Uniform regulation of a multi-section continuum manipulator”, Robotics and Automation Proceedings, ICRA'02, IEEE International Conference, (2002).

[10] L.  Birglen, and C. M. Gosselin, “Force analysis of connected differential mechanisms: application to grasping”, The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 25(10), (2006), pp. 1033-1046.

[11] B. Jones, and I. D. Walker, “Kinematics for multisection continuum robots,” Robotics, IEEE Transactions on 22, (1), (2006), pp. 43-55.

[12] J. Angeles, and F. C. Park, “Performance evaluation and design criteria”, Springer Handbook of Robotics, Springer, (2008), pp. 229-244.

[13] J. K.  Salisbury, and J. J. Craig, “Articulated hands force control and kinematic issues”, The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 1(1), (1982), pp. 4-17.