Dynamic Modeling and Construction of a New Two-Wheeled Mobile Manipulator: Self-balancing and Climbing

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

Abstract

Designing the self-balancing two-wheeled mobile robots and reducing undesired vibrations are of great importance. For this purpose, the majority of researches are focused on application of relatively complex control approaches without improving the robot structure. Therefore, in this paper we introduce a new two-wheeled mobile robot which, despite its relative simple structure, fulfills the required level of self-balancing without applying any certain complex controller. To reach this goal, the robot structure is designed in a way that its center of gravity is located below the wheels' axle level. The attention is more paid to obtaining a self-balancing model in which the robot’s arms and other equipment follow relatively low oscillations when the robot is subjected to a sudden change. After assembling the robot using the Sim-Mechanics toolbox of Matlab, several simulations are arranged to investigate the robot ability in fulfilling the required tasks. Further verifications are carried out by performing various experiments on the real model. Based on the obtained results, an acceptable level of balancing, oscillation reduction, and power supply is observed. To promote the self-balancing two-wheeled mobile manipulator, its platform is modified to climb high obstacles. In order to obtain this aim, some transformations are done in mechanical aspects like wheels, arms and main body without any increase in DOFs. The robot is supposed to follow proposed motion calculated according to stability criteria. The kinematic equations are utilized to find a possible motion. In a dynamic simulation, the robot ability in passing over an obstacle is verified.

Keywords


[1] S. Zhou, Y. C. Pradeep and P. C. Chen, “Simultaneous base and end-effector motion control of a nonholonomic mobile manipulator”, In Automation, Robotics and Applications (ICARA), (2015), pp. 143–148.

[2] R. Siegwart and I. R. Nourbakhsh, “Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots”, Second Edition, The MIT Press. (2011).

[3] R. L. Williams, B. E. Carter, P. Gallina and G. Rosati. “Dynamic Model with Slip for Wheeled Omni- directional Robots”, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 18, (2002), pp. 285–293.

[4] K. Watanabe, Y. Shiraishi, S. G. Tzafestas, J. Tang and T. Fukuda, “Feedback. Control of an Omnidirectional Autonomous Platform for Mobile Service Robots”, Journal of Intelligent Robotic Systems, Vol. 22, (1998), pp. 315–30.

[5] S. A. A. Moosavian and K. Alipour, “On the Dynamic Tip-Over Stability of Wheeled Mobile Manipulators”, International Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. 22, (2007), pp. 322–328.

[6] S. A. A. Moosavian, K. Alipour and Y. Bahramzadeh, “Dynamics Modeling and Tip-Over Stability of Suspended Wheeled Mobile Robots with Multiple Arms”, Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Diego, USA, (2007), pp. 1210–1215.

[7] S. A. A. Moosavian and S. S. Hoseyni, “Dynamic Modeling and Tipover Stability of a Hybrid Serial-Parallel Mobile Robot”, The 2nd International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, and Automation (ICCIA), Shiraz, Iran, (2011).

[8] C. L. Cham and W. H. Tan, “Design of an intelligent electronic system for dump truck tip-over prevention”, Informacije midel-journal of microelectronics electronics components and materials, Vol. 44, (2014), pp. 152-158.

[9] A. Ghaffari, A. Meghdari, D. Naderi and S. Eslami, “Tip-over Stability Enhancement of Wheeled Mobile Manipulators Using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Controller System”, International Journal of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 5, (2009), pp. 211–217.

[10] R. C. Ooi, “Balancing a Two-Wheeled Autonomous Robot. Master Thesis, School of Mechanical Engineering”, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, (2003).

[11] Y. Ha and S. Yuta, “Trajectory tracking control for navigation of the inverse pendulum type self-contained mobile robot”, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 17, (1996), pp. 65–80.

[12] F. Grasser, A. D’Arrigo, S. Colombi and A. C. Rufer, “JOE: a mobile, inverted pendulum”, IEEE Transactions in Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, (2002), pp. 107–114.

[13] Y. Kim, S. H. Kim and Y. K. Kwak, “Dynamic Analysis of a Nonholonomic Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Robot”, Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Vol. 44, (2005), pp. 25–46.

[14] W. An and Y. Li, “Simulation and Control of a Two-wheeled Self-balancing Robot”, Proceeding of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO(, Shenzhen, China, ( 2013).

[15] K. M. Goher and M. O. Tokhi, “Modeling Simulation and Balance Control of a Two-Wheeled Robotic Machine with Static Variation in Load Position”, In the Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Modeling and Simulation, Nicosia, Cyprus, (2008).

[16] S. W. Nawawi, M. N. Ahmad and J. H. S. Osman, “Real-Time Control of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 15, (2008), pp. 214–220.

[17] X. Raun, H. Ren, X. Li and Q. Wang, “Dynamic Model and Analysis of the Flexible Two-Wheeled Mobile Robot”, Intelligent Robotics and Applications, Vol. 5314, (2008), pp. 933– 942.

[18] X. Raun and J. Zhao, “The Flexible Two-Wheeled Self-balancing Robot based on Hopfield”, Intelligent Robotics and Applications, Vol. 5928, (2009), pp. 1196– 1204.

[19] P. Genova, M. Mihailova, R. Oransky and D. Ignatova, “Kinematics And Dynamics Modelling of Two-Wheeled Robot”, 11th National Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2-5 Sept., Borovets, Bulgaria, (2009).

[20] K. M. Goher, M. O. Tokhi and N. H. Siddique, “Dynamic Modeling and Control of A Two Wheeled Robotic Vehicle With A Virtual Payload”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 6, (2011), pp. 7–41.

[21] L. Mollov and P. Petkov, “Embedded Robust Control of Self-balancing Two-wheeled Robot”, Information Technologies and Control, Vol. 4, (2011), pp. 23–31.

[22] N. M. Abdul Ghani, F. Naim and T. P. Yon, “Two Wheels Balancing Robot with Line Following Capability”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 55, (2011), pp. 634-638.

[23] J. Wu, W. Zhang and S. Wang, “A Two-Wheeled Self-Balancing Robot with the Fuzzy PD Control Method”, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Vol. 2012, Article ID 469491, (2012).

[24] K. Peng, X. Ruan and G. Zuo, “Dynamic model and balancing control for two-wheeled self-balancing mobile robot on the slopes”, 10th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA), Beijing, (2012), pp. 3681 – 3685.

[25] Z. Kausar, K. Stol and N. Patel, “The Effect of Terrain Inclination on Performance and he Stability Region of Two-Wheeled Mobile Robots”, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, Vol. 9, (2012), pp. 1–11.

[26] T. Tomašić, A. Demetlika ans M. Crneković, “Self-Balancing Mobile Robot Tilter”, Transactions of Famena, Vol.3, (2012), pp. 23–32.

[27] H. S. Juang, K. Y. Lum, “Design and Control of a Two-Wheel Self-Balancing Robot using the Arduino Microcontroller Board”, 10th IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation (ICCA), Hangzhou, China, (2013).

[28] J. M. Morrey, B. Lambrecht, , A. D. Horchler, R. E. Ritzmann and R. D. Quinn, “Highly mobile and robust small quadruped robots”, Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vol. 1, (2003), pp. 82-87.

[29] A. S. Boxerbaum, P. Werk, R. D. Quinn and R. Vaidyanathan, “Design of an autonomous amphibious robot for surf zone operation: part I mechanical design for multi-mode mobility”, Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics. Proceedings, 2005 IEEE/ASME International Conference, (2005), pp. 1459-1464.

[30] A. Halme, I. Leppänen , S. Salmi and S. Ylönen, “Hybrid locomotion of a wheel-legged machine”, 3rd Int. Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots, (2000).

[31] R. Volpe, J. Balaram, T. Ohm and T. Ivlev, “The Rocky 7 Mars Rover Prototype”, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Osaka Japan, (1996).

[32] T. Estier, Y. Crausaz, B. Merminod, M. Lauria and R. R. Siegwart, “An innovative Space Rover with Extended Climbing Alilities”. Proceedings of Space and Robotics, (2000).

[33] H. Tappeiner, S. Skaff, , T. Szabo and R. Hollis, “Remote haptic feedback from a dynamic running machine. Robotics and Automation”, IEEE International Conference, (2009), 2368-2373.

[34] N. Neville, M. Buehler and I. Sharf, “A bipedal running robot with one actuator per leg. Robotics and Automation”, ICRA (2006), pp. 848-853.

[35] S. C. Chen, K. J. Huang, W. H. Chen, S. Y.  Shen, C. H. Li and P. C Lin, “Quattroped: A Leg-Wheel Transformable Robot”, Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions Vol. 2, (2014), pp. 730-742.

[36] M. M. Dalvand and M. M. Moghadam, “Stair climber smart mobile robot (MSRox)”, Autonomous Robots, Vol. 20, (2002), pp. 3-14.

[37]M. M. Dalvand and M. M. Moghadam, “Design and modeling of a stair climber smart mobile robot (MSRox)”, ICAR Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, (2003), pp. 1062-1067.

[38] O. Matsumoto, S. Kajita, K. Tani, and M. Oooto, “A four-wheeled robot to pass over steps by changing running control modes”, Robotics and Automation, Vol. 2, (1995), pp. 1700-1706.

[39] P. Ben-Tzvi, A. A. Goldenberg, and J. W Zu, “Design and analysis of a hybrid mobile robot mechanism with compounded locomotion and manipulation capability”, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 7, (2008).

[40] P. Ben-Tzvi, S. Ito and A. Goldenberg, “Autonomous stair climbing with reconfigurable tracked mobile robot”, Robotic and Sensors Environments. International Workshop, (2007), pp. 1-6.

 [41] Matlab Simulink, PID control Toolbox.