Road Departure Avoidance System Based on the Driver Decision Estimator

Document Type: Original Article


1 Technical University of Delft

2 K.N. Toosi University of Technology


In this paper a robust road departure avoidance system based on a closed-loop driver decision estimator (DDE) is presented. The main idea is that of incorporating the driver intent in the control of the vehicle. The driver decision estimator computes the vehicle look ahead lateral position based on the driver input and uses this position to establish the risk of road departure. To induce a risk of road departure, the proposed system is implemented on a driving simulator and thirty test drivers were asked to avoid a pylon-confined area (obstacle) while keeping the vehicle within the road limits. The RDA systems intervened by applying a haptic-feedback and correcting the steering angle in the event that a vehicle road departure was likely to occur. The experimental results showed that the proposed system reduced workload and effectively helped drivers to stay within road limits.


S. J. Anderson and S. C. Peters, An Optimalcontrol-based Framework for Trajectory Planning, Threat Assessment, and Semi-autonomous Control of Passenger Vehicles in Hazard Avoidance Scenarios, Int.J. Vehicle Autonomous Systems, Vol. 8, Ns.2/3/4, 2010.

S. Y. Kim and J.K. Kang (2008), An Intelligent and Integrated Driver Assistance System for Increased Safety and Convenience based on allaround Sensing, Journal of Intelligent Robot System, Vol. 51, 261–287.

J. S. Jermakian, “Crash Avoidance Potential of Four Passenger Vehicle Technologies,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 32-40, Nov. 2010.

C. Schweinsberg, “Infiniti Lane Departure Prevention to Debut on New M.” Available: Accessed, March 2011.

K. A. Braitman, A. T. McCartt, D. S. Zuby, J. Singer, “Volvo and Infiniti Drivers' Experiences With Select Crash Avoidance Technologies,” Traffic Injury Prevention, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 270- 278, 2010.

EuroNCAP, Infiniti Departure Prevention System: Available: x Accessed, March 2011.

P. Griffiths, R. B. Gillespie, “Sharing Control Between Human and Automation Using Haptic Interface: Primary and Secondary Task Performance Bene fits,” Human Factors, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 574-590, Fall 2005.

M. Mulder, D. A. Abbink, E. R. Boer, “The effect of haptic guidance on curve negotiation behaviour of young, experienced drivers,” in the 2008 Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. SMC, pp. 804–809, Oct. 2008.

M. Della Penna, M. M. van Paasen, D. A. Abbink, M. Mulder, and M. Mulder, “Reducing steering wheel stiffness is beneficial in supporting evasive maneuvers,” in the 2010 Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 1628–1635, 2010.

J. M. Chun, G. Park, S. Oh, J. Seo, S. H. Han, and S. Choi, “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Haptic Feedback on a Steering Wheel for Forward Collision and Blind Spot Warnings,” in the Proc. of the 9th Pan-Pacific Conf. on Ergonomics (PPCOE), Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2010.

S. de Groot, J. C. F. de Winter, J. M. L. García, M. Mulder, P. A. Wieringa, “The Effect of Concurrent Bandwidth Feedback on Learning the LaneKeeping Task in a Driving Simulator,” Human Factors, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 50–62, Feb. 2011.

J. C. F. de Winter, D. Dodou, “Preparing drivers for dangerous situations: A critical reflection of continuous shared control,” submitted to the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (IEEE SMC 2011), March 2011.

T. B. Sheridan, “Adaptive Automation, Level of Automation, Allocation Authority, Supervisory Control, and Adaptive Control: Distinctions and Modes of Adaptation,” IEEE Trans. on SMC, Part A, in press, 2011.

N. Minoiu, M. Netto, S. Mammar and B. Lusetti (2009), Driver Steering Assistance for Lane Departure Avoidance, Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 17, pp. 642-651.

M. Alirezaei, M. Corno, A. Ghaffari, R. Kazemi, “Robust Road Departure Avoidance Based on Driver Decision Estimation,” to be presented in the 2011 IFAC World Congress, 2011.

V. Cerone, M. Milanese and D. Regruto, “Combined Automatic Lane-Keeping and Driver’s Steering Through a 2-DOF Control Strategy,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 17, no.1, pp. 135-142, Jan. 2009.

D. A. Abbink, M. Mulder, Advances in Haptics, InTech, pp. 499-516, April 2010.

J.P. Switkes, Handwheel Force Feedback With Lanekeeping Assistance: Combined Dynamics, Stability and Bounding, a dissertation of doctor of philosophy, Stanford University, 2005.

E. Bakker, L. Nyborg, H. Pacejka, “Tyre modelling for use in vehicle dynamics studies,” SAE Paper No. 870421, 1987.

Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Service Training, Self-study programme 317, “The electromechanical power steering with dual pinion, Design and function.” Available: Accesed, March 2011.

D. Katzourakis, D. Abbink, R. Happee, E. Holweg, “Steering Force-Feedback for Human Machine Interface Automotive Experiments,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 60, no. 1, 2011, Special Issue on Haptic Enabled Virtual Environments.

U. Mackenroth, Robust Control Systems Theory and Case Study, chapter 9, Springer, Germany, 2004.

S. Skogestad, and I. Postlethwaite, Multivariable Feedback Control, chapter 1, 7, 9, 10, 11, 2nd edition, John Wiley, England, 2007.

S. G. Hart, L. E. Staveland, “Development of NASA-TLX (task load index): Results of empirical and theoretical research,” in Human Mental Workload, P. A. Hancock and N. Meshkati, Eds. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North Holland, pp. 139–183, 1988.

J. C. F. de Winter, M. Mulder, M. M. van Paassen, D. A. Abbink, P. A. Wieringa, “A two-dimensional weigh function for a driver assistance system,” IEEE T. Syst. Man Cyb. B, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 189– 195, Feb. 2008.