2011
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Stable Gait Planning and Robustness Analysis of a Biped Robot with One Degree of Underactuation
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2
In this paper, stability analysis of walking gaits and robustness analysis are developed for a fivelink and fouractuator biped robot. Stability conditions are derived by studying unactuated dynamics and using the PoincarÃ© map associated with periodic walking gaits. A stable gait is designed by an optimization process satisfying physical constraints and stability conditions. Also, considering underactuation problem, a timeinvariant control law is designed to track the stable motion of biped. Validation of proposed approach is achieved by numerical simulations. Moreover, the robustness of motion on the uneven surfaces and elastic contact model are investigated.
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1
12
Abbas
Fattah
Abbas
Fattah
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Iran
fattah@cc.iut.ac.ir
Reza
Dehghani
Reza
Dehghani
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Iran
rezadehghani@me.iut.ac.ir
Biped robot
Underactuation
Poincaré map
Robust motion
[J. Kanniah and Z. N. Lwin, ZMP compliant gait generation strategies for sevenmass biped robots, International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, 5(4) (2008) 609637. ##S.A.A. Moosavian, M. Alghooneh, A. Takhmar, Stable trajectory planning, dynamics modeling and fuzzy regulated sliding mode control of a biped robot, IEEERAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, Pittsburgh, USA, 2007, pp. 471476. ##M. Vukobratovic, B. Borovac, Zeromoment point – thirty five years of its life, International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, 1(1) (2004) 157–173. ##T. McGeer, Passive dynamic walking, International Journal of Robotics Research, 9(2) (1990) 62–82. ##E. Borzova, Y. Hurmuzlu, Passively walking fivelink robot, Automatica, 40 (2004) 621629. ##A. Formal’sky, Y. Aoustin, On the stabilization of a biped vertical posture in single support using internal torques, Robotica, 23(1) (2005) 6574. ##C. Chevallereau, A. Formal’sky, D. Djoudi, Tracking of a joint path for the walking of an underactuated biped, Robotica, 22(1) (2004) 1528. ##C. Chevallereau, E. R. Westervelt, J. W. Grizzle, Asymptotically stable running for a fivelink fouractuator planar bipedal robot, International Journal of Robotics Research, 24(6) (2005) 431464. ##Y. Aoustin, A. Formal’sky, Control design for a biped: Reference trajectory based on driven angles as function of the undriven angle, Journal of Computer and System Sciences International, 42(4) (2003) 159 176. ##S. K. Agrawal, A. Fattah, Motion control of a novel planar biped with nearly linear dynamics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 11(2) (2006) 162168. ##A. Chemori and A. Loria, Control of a planar underactuated biped on a complete walking cycle, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 49 (2004) 838–843. ##V. Sangwan, S. K. Agrawal, Differentially flat design of bipeds ensuring limitcycles, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, (Roma, Italy, 2007), pp. 35893590. ##T. Geng, B. Porr, F. Wörgötter, Fast biped walking with a sensordriven neural controller and realtime online learning, International Journal of Robotics Research, 25(3) (2006) 243259. ##J. W. Grizzle, G. Abba, F. Plestan, Asymptotically stable walking for biped robots: analysis via systems with impulse effects, IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control, 46 (1) (2001) 5164. ##L. Cambrini, C. Chevallereau, C. H. Moog, R. Stojic, Stable trajectory tracking for biped robots, Proceedings of IEEE Conference Decision and Control, (Orlando Florida, 2001), pp. 48154820. ##E. R. Westervelt, J. W. Grizzle, D. E. Koditschek, Hybrid zero dynamics of planar biped walkers, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 48(1) (2003) 42 56. ##E. R. Westervelt, G. Buche, J.W. Grizzle, Experimental Validation of a Framework for the Design of Controllers that Induce Stable Walking in Planar Bipeds, International Journal of Robotics Research, 23(6) (2004) 559582. ##M. Nikkhah, H. Ashrafiuon, and F. Fahimi, Robust control of underactuated bipeds using sliding modes, Robotica, 25 (2007) 367–374. ##A. D. Kuo, Stabilization of lateral motion in passive dynamic walking, International Journal of Robotics Research, 18(9) (1999) 917–930. ##Y. Hurmuzlu, T. H. Chang, Rigid body collisions of a special class of planar kinematic chains, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 22(5) (1992) 964971. ##A. Goswami , B. Espiau , A. Keramane , Limit cycles and their stability in a passive bipedal gait, Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1996), pp. 246251. ##C. Canudas, H. Olsson, K. J. Astrom, P. Lischinsky, A newmodel for control of systems with friction, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 40(3) (1995) 419 125. ##W. D. Marhefka, D. E. Orin, A compliant contact model with nonlinear damping for simulation of robotic systems, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man and Cybernetics. part A: System and Humans, 29(6) (1999).##]
On the Desing and Test of a Prototype of Biped Actuated by Shape Memory Alloys
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2
In this paper the design of a biped robot actuated with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) springs with minimum degrees of freedom is presented. SMA springs are a class of smart materials that are known for their high power to mass and volume ratios. It was shown that utilizing spring type of SMAs have many advantages as large deformation, smooth motion, silent and clean movement compared to ordinary type of actuators. In this work a Biped robot actuated through SMA springs with four DOFs is modeled and designed. Walking trajectory is generated validating the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) Criteria and the number of DOFs is modified accordingly. To verify the design, a complete model of the biped actuated with SMA is modeled through computer simulation in MATLAB and Visual Nastaran. Finally to validate the results, a prototype is manufactured and tested. Experimental results showed reasonable agreement with simulation results.
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12
18
Alireza
Hadi
Alireza
Hadi
University of Tehran
University of Tehran
Iran
hrhadi@ut.ac.ir
Majid
M. Moghaddam
Majid
M. Moghaddam
Tarbiat Modares University
Tarbiat Modares University
Iran
m.moghadam@modares.ac.ir
Amin
Tohidi
Amin
Tohidi
Tarbiat Modares University
Tarbiat Modares University
Iran
amintohidi@modares.ac.ir
Biped robot
SMA Actuator
5DOFs
[M. Vukobratovic and D. Juricic, “Contribution to the Synthesis of Biped Gait”, IEEE Trans. on BioMedical Engineering, 16, no.1,1969,16. ##K. Hirai, “Current and Future Perspecive of Honda Humanoid Robot”, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2, 1997, 500508. ##Y. Kuroki, “A small biped entertainment robot”, International Symposium on Micromechatronics and Human Science, 2001, 34. ##HyungMin Son, JunBum Gul, SeHoon Park, YunJung Lee, TaeHyun, “ Design of new quadruped robot with SMA actuators for dynamic walking”, SICEICASE International Joint Conference, Bexco, Busan, Korea,2006. ##C. Y. Liu, W. H. Liao,” A Snake Robot Using Shape Memory Alloys”, International Conference of IEEE on Robotics and Biomimetics, Shenyang, China, August 2004, 601 – 605. ##Mami Nishida, Kazuo Tanaka, Hua O. Wang,” Development and Control of a Micro Biped Walking Robot using Shape Memory Alloys”, International Conference of IEEE on Robotics and Automation,Orlando, Florida , May 2006, 1604 – 1609. ##Ehsan Tarkesh Esfahani, Mohammad H. Elahinia,” Stable Walking Pattern for an SMAActuated Biped” ,IEEE/ASME Transaction on Mechatronics, 12(5),October 2007. ##Junichi Urata, Tomoaki Yoshikai, Ikuo Mizuuchi and Masayuki Inaba,” Design of High D.O.F. Mobile Micro Robot Using Electrical Resistance Control of Shape Memory Alloy”, International Conference of IEEE/RSJ on Intelligent Robots and Systems,San Diego, CA, USA, Oct 29  Nov 2, 2007, 3828 – 3833. ##Shenshun Ying, Xianshen Qin and Qiong Liu,” Design and Research of Robot Joint Actuated by SMA Wire”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics ,sanya,china, December 2007. ##A. Hadi, A. YousefiKoma, M. M. Moghadam, M.Elahinia ,A. Ghazavi, “Developing a Novel SMAActuated Robotic Module,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 162:7281, 2010. ##L. C. Brinson, “Onedimensional constitutive behavior of shape memory alloys: Thermomechanical derivation with nonconstant material functions and redefined martensite internal variable,” Journal of intelligent material systems and structures, 4, April 1993, 229–242.##]
Dexterous Workspace Shape and Size Optimization of Tricept Parallel Manipulator
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2
This work intends to deal with the optimal kinematic synthesis problem of Tricept parallel manipulator. Observing that cuboid workspaces are desirable for most machines, we use the concept of effective inscribed cuboid workspace, which reflects requirements on the workspace shape, volume and quality, simultaneously. The effectiveness of a workspace is characterized by the dexterity of the manipulator all over its workspace. Tricept has a complex degree of freedom, i.e. both rotational and translational DoF, therefore its performance indices depend on the singular values of the dimensional inhomogeneous Jacobian. Here, we divide the Jacobian entries by units of length, thereby producing a new Jacobian that is dimensionally homogeneous. By multiplying the associated entries of the twist array to the same length, we made this array homogeneous as well. This implies some sort of tradeoff between position and orientation components of the twist array. An optimal design problem, including constraints on actuated and passive joint limits, is then formulated. This problem is a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. Therefore, Genetic Algorithm toolbox of Matlab is adopted to solve the problem.
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HamidReza
Mohammadi Daniali
HamidReza
Mohammadi Daniali
Babol University of Technology
Babol University of Technology
Iran
mohammadi@nit.ac.ir
Mir Amin
Hosseini
Mir Amin
Hosseini
Babol University of Technology
Babol University of Technology
Iran
ma_hosseini@stu.nit.ac.ir
Tricept
Cuboid Shape
Dexterous Workspace
Complex Degrees of Freedom
Parallel Manipulators
Genetic Algorithm Method
[T. Huang, C.M. Gosselin, D.J. Whitehouse and D.G. Chetwynd, Analytical approach for optimal design of a type of spherical parallel manipulator using dexterous performance indices, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 217(4) 447456 (2003). ##V. ParentiCastelli, R. Di Gregorio and F. Bubani, Workspace and Optimal Design of a Pure Translation Parallel Manipulator, Meccanica 35, 203–214 (2000). ##XJ. Liu, J. Wang and H. Zheng, Workspace atlases for the computeraided design of the Delta robot, Proceedings of the I. MECH. E. Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 217, 861869 (2003). ##JP. Merlet, Designing a parallel manipulator for a speci fic workspace, Int. J. Rob. Res., 16 (4) 545–556 (1997). ##R. Boudreau and C.M. Gosselin, The synthesis of planar parallel manipulators with a genetic algorithm, J. Mech. Des., 121 (4) 533–537 (1999). ##M.A. Laribi, L. Romdhane and S. Zeghloul, Analysis and dimensional synthesis of the DELTA robot for a prescribed workspace, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 42, 859–870 (2007). ##M.A. Hosseini, H.R. M. Daniali and H.D. Taghirad, Dexterous workspace optimization of Tricept parallel manipulator, Accepted by Int. J. of Advanced Robotics (2011). ##Y. Li and Q. Xu, Optimal kinematic design for a general 3PRS spatial parallel manipulator based on dexterity and workspace, The Eleventh International Conference on Machine Design and Production, Antalya, Turkey (2004). ##Q. Xu and Y. Li, Kinematic Analysis and Optimization of a New Compliant Parallel Micromanipulator, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 3 (4), 351358 (2006). ##G. Pond and J.A. Carretero, Architecture optimization of three 3PRS variants for parallel kinematic machining, Robotics and ComputerIntegrated Manufacturing, 25(1) 6472 (2009). ##Y. Lou, G. Liu and Z. Li, Randomized optimal design of parallel manipulators, IEEE Trans. On Automation Science and Engineering (2007). ##K.E. Neumann, US patent 4,732,525, Mar. 22 (1988). ##G. Pond, Dexterity and Workspace Characteristics of Complex Degree of Freedom Parallel Manipulators, PhD Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick (2006). ##B. Siciliano, The Tricept robot: Inverse kinematics, manipulability analysis and closedloop direct kinematics algorithm, Robotica, 17(4) 437 445 (1999). ##G. Pond and J.A. Carretero, Quantitative dexterous workspace comparison of parallel manipulators, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 42(10) 13881400 (2007). ##D. Zhang, C.M. Gosselin, Kinetostatic analysis and design optimization of the tricept machine tool family, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 124(3) 725733 (2002). ##Y. Li and Q. Xu, Kinematics and Stiffness Analysis for a General 3PRS Spatial Parallel Mechanism, Proc. Of ROMANCY, Montreal, Canada (2004). ##J.A. Carretero, M.A. Nahon and R.P. Podhorodeski, Workspace analysis and optimization of a novel 3DOF parallel manipulator, International Journal of Robotics and Automation, 15(4) 178188 (2000). ##C.M. Gosselin and J. Angeles, A global performance index for the kinematic optimization of robotic manipulators, ASME Trans. J. Mech. Des., 113 (3) 220–226 (1991). ##O. Ma and J. Angeles, Optimum architecture design of platform manipulators, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Advanced Robotics (1991). ##R.E. Stamper, LW. Tsai and G.C. Walsh, Optimization of a three DOF translational platform for wellconditioned workspace, 1997 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, 4, 32503255 (1997). ##F. Ranjbaran, J. Angeles, M.A. GonzalezPalacios and R.V. Patel, The mechanical design of a sevenaxes manipulator with kinematic isotropy, Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 14, 2141 (1995). ##D. Chablat, Ph. Wenger, S. Caro and J. Angeles, The isoconditioning loci of planar three dof parallel manipulators, Proceedings of DETC’2002, ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Montreal, Quebec, Canada(2002). ##C.M. Gosselin, The optimum design of robotic manipulators using dexterity indices, Journal of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 9 (4) 213–226 (1992). ##SG. Kim, J. Ryu, New dimensionally homogeneous jacobian matrix formulation by three endeffector points for optimal design of parallel manipulators, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 19 (4) 731–737(2003). ##J. Angeles, Is there a characteristic length of a rigidbody displacement?, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 41, 884–896(2006). ##I. Mansouri and M. Ouali, A new homogeneous manipulability measure of robot manipulators based on power concept, Journal of Mechatronics, 19, 927–944(2009). ##N. M. Rao, and K. M. Rao, Dimensional synthesis of a spatial 3RPS parallel manipulator for a prescribed range of motion of spherical joints, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 44(2), 477486(2009). ##Y. Li and Q. Xu, GABased MultiObjective Optimal Design of a Planar 3DOF CableDriven Parallel Manipulator, Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, December 17  20, Kunming, China(2006). ##C. Houck, J. Joines and M. Kay, A genetic algorithm for function optimization: A matlab implementation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, Tech. Rep. NCSUIETR9509 (1995). ##S. Kucuk, A Dexterity Comparison for 3DOF Planar Parallel Manipulators with Two Kinematic Chains Using Genetic Algorithms, Int. J. of Mechatronics, 19(6) 868877(2009).##]
Kinematic Mapping and Forward Kinematic Problem of a 5DOF (3T2R) Parallel Mechanism with Identical Limb Structures
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2
The main objective of this paper is to study the Euclidean displacement of a 5DOF parallel mechanism performing three translation and two independent rotations with identical limb structuresrecently revealed by performing the type synthesisin a higher dimensional projective space, rather than relying on classical recipes, such as Cartesian coordinates and Euler angles. In this paper, Study's kinematic mapping is considered which maps the displacements of threedimensional Euclidean space to points on a quadric, called Study quadric, in a sevendimensional projective space, P7. The main focus of this contribution is to lay down the essential features of algebraic geometry for our kinematics purposes, where, as case study, a 5DOF parallel mechanism with identical limb structures is considered. The forward kinematic problem is reviewed and the kinematic mapping is introduced for both general and firstorder kinematics, i.e., velocity, which provides some insight into the better understanding of the kinematic behaviour of the mechanisms under study in some particular configurations for the rotation of the platform and also the constantposition workspace.
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26
35
Clément
Gosselin
ClÃ©ment
Gosselin
Laval University
Laval University
Iran
clement.gosselin@gmc.ulaval.ca
Mehdi
Tale Masouleh
Mehdi
Tale Masouleh
Laval University
Laval University
Iran
mehdi.talemasouleh.1@ulaval.ca
5
DOF Parallel Mechanisms
Three translation and two independent rotations
3T2R Study parameters
General and first
order kinematic mapping
Forward Kinematic Problem (FKP)
Constant
position workspace
[D. A. Cox, J. B. Little, and D. O’shea, Using Algebraic Geometry. Springer Verlag, 2005. ##E. Study, “ Von den Bewegungen und Umlegungen,” Math. Ann., vol. 39, pp. 441–566, 1891. ##M. L. Husty and H.P. Schrocker,¨ “Algebraic Geometry and Kinematics.” Nonlinear Computational Geometry edited by Emiris, I. Z., Sottile F. and Theobald T., 2007, pp. 85–106. ##X. Kong and C. Gosselin, Type Synthesis of Parallel Mechanisms. Springer, Heidelberg, 2007, vol. 33. ##“Parallelmic, http://www.parallemic.org/.” ##F. Gao, B. Peng, H. Zhao, and W. Li, “A Novel 5DOF Fully Parallel Kinematic Machine Tool,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 201–207, 2006. ##O. Piccin, B. Bayle, B. Maurin, and M. de Mathelin, “Kinematic Modeling of a 5DOF Parallel Mechanism for SemiSpherical Workspace,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1485–1496, 2009. ##C. Gosselin, M. Tale Masouleh, V. Duchaine, P. L. Richard, S. Foucault, and X. Kong, “Parallel Mechanisms of the Multipteron Family: Kinematic Architectures and Benchmarking,” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Roma, Italy, 1014 April 2007, pp. 555–560. ##M. Tale Masouleh and C. Gosselin, “Singularity Analysis of 5RPRRR Parallel Mechanisms via Grassmann Line Geometry,” in Proceedings of the 2009 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, DETC200986261. ##M. Tale Masouleh, M. Husty, and C. Gosselin, “Forward Kinematic Problem of 5PRUR Parallel Mechanisms Using Study Parameters,” in Advances in Robot Kinematics: Motion in Man and Machine. Springer, 2010, pp. 211–221. ##M. Tale Masouleh, M. H. Saadatzi, C. Gosselin, and H. D. Taghirad, “A Geometric Constructive Approach for the Workspace Analysis of Symmetrical 5PRUR Parallel Mechanisms (3T2R),” in Proceedings of the 2010 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, DETC201028509. ##M. Tale Masouleh, M. Husty, and C. Gosselin, “A General Methodology for the Forward Kinematic Problem of Symmetrical Parallel Mechanisms and Application to 5PRUR parallel mechanisms (3T2R),” in Proceedings of the 2010 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, DETC201028222. ##M. L. Husty, “An Algorithm for Solving the Direct Kinematics of General StewartGough Platforms,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 365–379, 1996. ##D. R. Walter, M. Husty, and M. Pfurner, “The SNU3UPU Parallel Robot from a Theoretical Viewpoint ,” in Fundamental Issues and Future Research Directions for Parallel Mechanisms and Manipulators, Montpellier, France, 21–22 September 2008, pp. 151–158. ##K. Brunnthaler, “Synthesis of 4R Linkages Using Kinematic Mapping,” Ph.D. dissertation, Institute for Basic Sciences in Engineering, Unit Geometry and CAD, Innsbruck, Austria, December 2006. ##M. Tale Masouleh, C. Gosselin, M. H. Saadatzi, and H. D. Taghirad, “Forward Kinematic Problem and Constant Orientation Workspace of 5RPRRR (3T2R) Parallel Mechanisms,” in 18th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE). IEEE, 2010, pp. 668–673. ##X. Kong and C. Gosselin, “Type Synthesis of 5DOF Parallel Manipulators Based on Screw Theory,” Journal of Robotic Systems, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 535–547, 2005. ##M. Tale Masouleh and C. Gosselin, “Kinematic Analysis and Singularity Representation of 5RPRRR Parallel Mechanisms,” in Fundamental Issues and Future Research Directions for Parallel Mechanisms and Manipulators, Montpellier, France, 21–22 September 2008, pp. 79–90. ##M. Tale Masouleh, C. Gosselin, M. H. Saadatzi, X. Kong, and H. D. Taghirad, “Kinematic Analysis of 5RPUR (3T2R) Parallel Mechanisms,” Meccanica,vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 131–146, 2011. ##I. A. Bonev, “Geometric Analysis of Parallel Mechanisms,” Ph.D. dissertation, Laval University.##]
Hybrid Concepts of the Control and AntiControl of Flexible Joint Manipulator
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This paper presents a Gaussian radial basis function neural network based on sliding mode control for trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, designed controller is developed for tip angular position control of a flexible joint manipulator. The adaptation laws of designed controller are obtained based on sliding mode control methodology without calculating the Jacobian of the flexible joint system. Also in this study, the anticontrol is applied to reduce the deflection angle of flexible joint system. To achieve this goal, the chaos dynamic must be created in the flexible joint system. So, the flexible joint system has been synchronized to chaotic gyroscope system. In this study, control and anticontrol concepts are applied to achieve the high quality performance of flexible joint system. It is tried to design a controller which is capable to satisfy the control and anti control aims. The performances of the proposed control are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed method is validated through experimentation on QUANSERâs flexiblejoint manipulator.
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35
45
Mojtaba
Rostami Kandroodid
Mojtaba
Rostami Kandroodid
University of Tehran
University of Tehran
Iran
m.rostami.k@ece.ut.ac.ir
Faezeh
Farivar
Faezeh
Farivar
Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch
Islamic Azad University Science and Research
Iran
f.farivar@srbiau.ac.ir
Mahdi
Aliyari Shoorehdeli
Mahdi
Aliyari Shoorehdeli
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
Iran
aliyari@eetd.kntu.ac.ir
Maysam
Zamani Pedram
Maysam
Zamani Pedram
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
Iran
maysam_pedram@ee.kntu.ac.ir
Gaussian RBF neural network
Sliding mode control
Switching surface
anti
control
chaos
Synchronization
Flexible Joint
Chaotic Gyroscope
[M. W. Spong and M. Vidyasagar, “Robot Dynamics and Control”, New York: Wiley, 1989. ##S. E. Talole, J. P. Kolhe, S. B. Phadke, “ExtendedStateObserverBased Control of FlexibleJoint System With Experimental Validation”, IEEE Trans on Industerial Electronics, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 14111419, 2010. ##F. M. Botsali, M. kalyancu, M. Tinkir, U. Onen, " Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Control of Flexible Robot Manipulator With Rotating Prismatic Joint”, 2nd international Conference on computer and automation engineering (ICCAE), pp.3539, 2010. ##M. A. Ahmad, “Vibration and Input Tracking Control of Flexible Manipulator using LQR with Noncollocated PID controller”, Proceeding of 2nd UKSIM European Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation, pp. 4045, 2008. ##W.Yim, “Adaptive Control of a Flexible Joint Manipulator”, IEEE International conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. pp. 3441–3446., 2001. ##J. H. Oh, J.S. Lee, “Control of Flexible Joint Robot System by Backstepping Design Approach”, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol.4, pp. 34353440, 1997. ##F. Ghorbel, J. Y. Hung, M.W.Spong, “Adaptive Control of Flexible Joint Manipulators”, Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 9, pp. 913, 1989. ##L.C. Lin, K.Yuan, “Control of Flexible Joint Robots via External Linearization Approach”, Journal of Robotic Systems, Vol. 1 No.1, pp. 122, 2007. ##M. W. Spong, K. Khorasani, P. V. Kokotovic, “An Integral Manifold Approach to the Feedback Control of Flexible Joint Robots”, IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 291300, 1987. ##P. Tomei, “A Simple PD Controller for Robots with Elastic Joints”, IEEE Trans on Automatic Control, Vol. 36, No. 10, pp. 12081213, 1991. ##J. S. Yeon, J. H. Park, “Practical Robust Control for Flexible Joint Robot Manipulators”, IEEE International Conference on Robotic and Automation, pp. 33773382. 2008. ##M. A. Ahmad, R. M. T. Raja Ismail, M. S. Ramli and M. A. Zawawi, “Elastic Joint Control using Noncollocated Fuzzy and Filtering Scheme: A Comparative Assessment”, 4th Asia International Conference on Mathematical/Analytical Modelling and Computer Simulation, pp: 366371, 2010. ##M. A. Ahmad, M.H. Suid, M. S. Ramli, M. A. Zawawi, R. M. T. Raja Ismail, “PD Fuzzy Logic with Noncollocated PID Approach for Vibration Control of Flexible Joint Manipulator”, 6th International Colloquium on Signal Processing & Its Applications (CSPA), 2010. ##A. Jnifene,W. Andrews, “Experimental Study on Active Vibration Control of a SingleLink Flexible Manipulator Using Tools of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks”, IEEE Trans on Instrumentation and measurement, Vol. 54, NO. 3, pp.12001208, 2005. ##M. A. Ahmad, R. M. T. Raja Ismail, M. S. Ramli, M. A. Zawawi, N. Hambali, and N. M. Abd. Ghani, “Vibration Control of Flexible Joint Manipulator using Input Shaping with PDtype Fuzzy Logic Control”, IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISlE 2009), pp.1184 1189, 2009. ##M.A. Ahmad, R.M.T. Raja Ismail, M.S. Ramli, “Optimal Control with Input Shaping for Input Tracking and Vibration Suppression of a Flexible Joint Manipulator”, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.583599, 2009. ##M.A. Ahmad, M.S. Ramli, R.M.T. Raja Ismail, N. Hambali, M.A. Zawawi, “The investigations of input shaping with optimal state feedback for vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator”, Conference on Innovative Technologies in Intelligent Systems and Industrial Applications (CITISIA), pp.446451, 2009. ##F. Farivar, M. Aliyari Shoorehdeli, M. A. Nekoui, M. Teshnehlab, “Sliding Mode Control of Flexible Joint Using Gaussian Radial Basis Function Neural Networks”, International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering’08, pp.856 – 860, 2008. ##S. Ozgoli, H.D. Taghirad, “Design of Composite Control For Flexible Joint Robots With Saturating Actuators”, 5th Iranian Conference on Fuzzy Systems, pp.7582, 2004. ##H. Chaoui, P. Sicard, A. Lakhsasi, “Reference model supervisoryloop for neural network based adaptive control of a flexible joint with hard nonlinearities”, IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 2029–2034, 2004. ##D. Hui, S. Fuchun, S. Zengqi, “Observerbased adaptive controller design of flexible manipulators using timedelay neurofuzzy networks”. J. Intell. Robot. Syst.: Theory and Applications, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 453–466, 2002. ##B. Subudhi, A.Morris, “Singular perturbation based neuroh infinity control scheme for a manipulator with flexible links and joints. Robotica Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 151–161, 2006. ##“Quanser Student Handout, Rotary Flexible Joint Module”. http://www.quanser.com ##G.Chen and X.Dong, “From chaos to order: perspectives, methodologies and applications”, Singapore, World Scientific, 1988. ##L. M. Pecora, T. L. Carroll, “Synchronization in chaotic systems”, Physics Review Letter, Vol.64, pp.821–4, 1990. ##J. Yan, C. Li, “Generalized projective synchronization of a unified chaotic system”, Journal of Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, Vol.26, pp.1119–24, 2005. ##J. P. Yan, C. P. Li, “Generalized projective synchronization for the chaotic Lorenz system and the chaotic Chen system”, J Shanghai Univ, Vol.10, pp299, 2006. ##F. Farivar, M. Aliyari Shoorehdeli, M. A. Nekoui, M. Teshnehlab, “Generalized projective synchronization for chaotic systems via Gaussian Radial Basis Adaptive Backstepping Control”, Journal of Chaos, Solitons and Fractals ,Vol. 42, pp.826–839, 2009. ##H. K. Chen, “Chaos and chaos synchronization of a symmetric gyro with linearpluscubic damping”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 255, pp.719–740, 2002. ##JE. Slotine, W. Li. “Applied nonlinear control”, New Jersey: PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, 1991.##]
Robust Trajectory Free Model Predictive Control of Biped Robots with Adaptive Gait Length
2
2
This paper employs nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) for robust trajectoryfree Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) of biped robots. The NDO is used to reject the additive disturbances caused by parameter uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, joints friction, and external slowvarying forces acting on the biped robots. In contrary to the slowvarying disturbances, handling sudden pushing disturbances acting on the biped robots is much more complicated and using the NDO doesnât guarantee the biped walking stability. In order to reject these kinds of disturbances, the motion controller must be able to make suitable decisions for quick changing of the gait length or the walking speed. However, the gait length change is not possible while tracking fixed predefined joint trajectories. Hence, in this paper the NMPC is designed in such a way that it has the ability to change the gait length appropriately. In addition, some schemes will be proposed to reduce the computation time of the NMPC. Simulating results show good performance of the proposed method in trajectoryfree walking of biped robots as well as disturbance rejection.
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45
55
Mohammad
Farrokhi
Mohammad
Farrokhi
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran
farrokhi@iust.ac.ir
Mohsen
Parsa
Mohsen
Parsa
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran
Biped Robots
Model Predictive Control
Disturbance Observer
Gait Length
[Zohdy M. A. and Zaher A. A., “Robust control of biped’ robots,” American Control Conference, Chicaao, Illinois, 2000. ##Chuangfeng H. and Yuefa F., “Robust control for stable dynamic walking of biped robot,” International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Beijing, China, 2006. ##Liu L. M., Tian Y. T, Sui1 Zh., and Huang X. L., “Finitetime robust trajectory tracking control for the under actuated biped robot based on poincarélikealtercelltocell mapping method,” 4th International Conference on Autonomous Robots and Agents, Wellington, pp. 686691, New Zealand, 2009. ##Nakao M., Ohnishi K., and Miyachi, “A robust decentralized joint control based on interference estimation,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Raleigh, NC, 1987. ##Smadi I. and Fujimoto Y., “On nonlinear disturbance observer base control of eulerlagrange systems,” Journal of System Design and Dynamics, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 330 343, 2009. ##Gupta A., Disturbance Observer Based Closed Loop Control of Haptic Interfaces, PhD Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas, 2008. ##Young Doo Y., Jung E., and Sul S. k., “Application of a disturbance observer for a relative position control system,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 46, Issue 2, 2010. ##Azevedo Ch., Poignet Ph., Espiau B., “Moving horizon control for biped robots without reference trajectory,” International Conference on Robotics & Automation, Washington D.C., 2002. ##Azevedo CH., Poignet PH., and Espiau B., “Artificial locomotion control: from human to robots,” Journal of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol.43, pp. 203223, 2004. ##Zhu Zh., Wang Y., and Chen X., “Realtime control of full actuated biped robot based on nonlinear model predictive control,” Intelligent Robotics and Applications, Vol. 5314, pp. 873882, Springer Verlag, 2008. ##Mu X., Dynamics and Motion Regulation of a Fivelink Biped Robot Walking in the Sagittal Plane, PhD Thesis, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Canada, 2004. ##Vukobratovic M. and Stepanenko Y., ”Mathematical models of general anthropomorphic systems,” International Journal of Mathematical Biosciences, Vol.17, pp.191242. 1973. ##Mitobe K., Mori N., Nasu Y. and Adachi N. “Control of a biped walking robot during the double support phase,” Journal of Autonomous Robots, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 287296, 1997. ##Bagheri A., Felezi M., and Mousavi P. “Adaptive control and simulation of a sevenlink biped robot for the combined trajectory motion and stability investigations,” WSEAS Transactions on Systems, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 12141222, 2006. ##Diedam H., Dimitrov D., Wieber P., Mombaur K., and Diehl M., “Online walking gait generation with adaptive foot positioning through linear model predictive control,” International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Nice, France, 2008. ##Dimitrov D., Wieber P., Ferreau H., and Diehl M., “On the implementation of model predictive control for online walking pattern generation,” International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Pasadena, CA, USA, 2008. ##Wieber P., “Viability and predictive control for safe locomotion,” International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Nice, France, 2008. ##A. Nikoobin and R. Haghighi, “Lyapunovbased nonlinear disturbance observer for serial nlink robot manipulators,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Vol. 55, No. 2 3y, pp. 135153, 2009. ##Espiau B. and Sardain P., “The anthropomorphic biped robot BIP2000,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation, San Francisco, CA, 2000.##]
NearMinimumTime Motion Planning of Manipulators along Specified Path
2
2
The large amount of computation necessary for obtaining time optimal solution for moving a manipulator on specified path has made it impossible to introduce an on line time optimal control algorithm. Most of this computational burden is due to calculation of switching points. In this paper a learning algorithm is proposed for finding the switching points. The method, which can be used for both serial and parallel manipulators, is based on a twoswitch algorithm with three segments of moving with maximum acceleration, constant velocity and maximum deceleration along the path. The learning algorithm is aimed at decreasing the length of constant velocity segment in each step of learning process. The algorithm is applied to find the near minimum time solution of a parallel manipulator along a specified path. The results prove versatility of the algorithm both in tracking accuracy and short training process.
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55
62
Mohammad Hasan
Ghasemi
Mohammad Hasan
Ghasemi
Babol University of Technology
Babol University of Technology
Iran
Mohammad Jafar
Sadigh
Mohammad Jafar
Sadigh
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Iran
jafars@cc.iut.ac.ir
Optimal Path Planning
Parallel Manipulators
switching location
[Bobrow, J. E., Dubowsky, S. and Gibson, J.S.: Timeoptimal control of robotic manipulators along specified paths, Int. J. Robotics Res., 1985, vol.4, no.3, pp.317. ##Pfeiffer, F. and Johanni, R.: A Concept for Manipulator Trajectory Planning, IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, vol.RA3, 1987, no.2, pp.115123. ##Zlajpah, L.: On Time Optimal Path Control of Manipulators with Bounded Joint Velocities and Torques, In Proc of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Minneapolis, 1996, pp.1572  1577. ##S. D. Timar, R.T. Farouki, and T.S. Smith, C.L. Boyadjieff, Algorithms for timeoptimal control of CNC machines along curved tool paths, Robotics and ComputerIntegrated Manufacturing, 2005, 21, 37–53. ##Sadigh, M. J. and Ghasemi, M.H.: A Fast Algo rithm for Time Optimal Control of a Cooperative Multi Manipulator System on Specified Path, in proc of 5th Vienna symposium on mathematical modeling, modeling for/and control, 2006, vol.2, pp.17. ##McCarthy, J. M. and Bobrow, J. E.: The Number of saturated Actuators and Constraint Forces During TimeOptimal Movement of a General Robotic System, IEEE Transaction on Robotics and Automation, 1992, vol.8, no.3, pp.407409, June. ##Moon, S. B. and Ahmad, S.: TimeOptimal Trajectories for Cooperative MultiManipulator System, IEEE Transaction on system, Man and cybernetics, 1997, vol.27, no.2, pp.343353. ##Ghasemi, M. H. and Sadigh, M. J.: A Direct Algorithm to Compute Switching Curve for Time Optimal Motion of Cooperative MultiManipulators Moving on Specified Path, International Journal of Advanced Robotics, 2008, vol.22, no.5, pp.493506. ##S. Ma and M. Watanabe, Timeoptimal control of kinematically redundant manipulators with limit heat charac teristics of actuators, Advanced Robotics, 2002, vol.16, no.8, pp.735 – 749 ##M. Galicki, Control of kinematically redundant manipulator with actuator constraints, Robot Motion and Control,in proc of the Fifth International Workshop (RoMoCo '05), 2005, pp.123 130. ##J. Mattmüller and D. Gisler, Calculating a near timeoptimal jerkconstrained trajectory along a specified smooth path, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2009, 45, 1007–1016. ##D. Constantinescu and E. A. Croft, Smooth and time optimal trajectory planning for industrial manipulators along specified paths, Journal of Robotic Systems, 2000, 17, 233249. ##Bianco, C. G. L. and Piazzi, A. Minimumtime trajectory planning of mechanical manipulators under dynamic constraints, International Journal of Control, 2002, 75(13), 967980. ##H. Osumi, S.Kamiya, H. Kato, K. Umeda, R. Ueda, and T. Arai, Time optimal control for quadruped walking robots, in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2006, Orlando, pp. 10504729. ##F. Y. Yi, K. CH. Nan, L. T. Li, and W. CH. Ju, A Nonlinear Programming Method for TimeOptimal Control of an OmniDirectional Mobile Robot. Journal of Vibration and Control, 2008, 14, 17291747.##]